In 1954, the Supreme Court declared that segregated schools were unconstitutional, but a decade later, most schools remained segregated. At the height of the Civil Rights movement, President John F. Kennedy drafted legislation to enforce racial equality. It wasn't until President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which gave the federal government the power to withhold federal funds from segregated public schools, that many school districts first developed desegregation plans.
Ten years after Brown v. Board of Education, only two percent of black students in southern states attended desegregated schools. Without the power of enforcement, the Supreme Court's decision had limited impact. While the Court had the power to interpret the law, it was left to local school districts to implement the decision. Most southern states ignored the Court's ruling, and many local and state officials actively resisted it.
As the Civil Rights movement escalated, pressure mounted for the president and the Justice Department to assume a more active role in speeding up desegregation in public facilities, including schools.
In 1964, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, proposed by President John F. Kennedy and signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson after Kennedy's assassination. The act banned discrimination in public facilities and prohibited employers from discriminating on the basis of race, color, or national origin. . It allowed the federal government to cut off federal funds to projects or agencies if there was evidence that they discriminated on the basis of race, color, or national origin. It created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), as well as the Community Relations division of the Justice Department.
A key provision of the act with respect to school desegregation empowered the Justice Department to bring suits against southern school districts that refused to implement the Brown decisions. So where the Brown rulings had limited impact, the Civil Rights Act came with the power of enforcement. For many southern school districts, the threat of federal lawsuits and losing federal money triggered the first signs of compliance with the Court's rulings in Brown.
Academic standards correlations on Teachers' Domain use the Achievement Standards Network (ASN) database of state and national standards, provided to NSDL projects courtesy of JES & Co.
We assign reference terms to each statement within a standards document and to each media resource, and correlations are based upon matches of these terms for a given grade band. If a particular standards document of interest to you is not displayed yet, it most likely has not yet been processed by ASN or by Teachers' Domain. We will be adding social studies and arts correlations over the coming year, and also will be increasing the specificity of alignment.